The term Pre-project is generally used to designate all the preparatory stages necessary for launching the project. It is therefore a question of precisely defining what the project will be in order to lead to the development of contractual documents (forming the basis of a contract) allowing the initiation of the project. This phase therefore formalizes the decision to start the project.
- Analyse of needs
- Project conception
- Cost estimates
- Preliminary plans
Analyse of needs
- Opportunity study;
- The feasibility study;
- The detailed study;
- Technical study.
This pre-project stage makes it possible to study the project request and to decide if the concept is viable. This first step aims to validate user demand against the general objectives of the organization.
It consists in defining the scope of the project (we also speak of context), in particular in defining the end users, that is to say those for whom the work is intended (we speak of targeting or profiling). At this stage of the project, it is therefore useful to involve users in the overall reflection.
During the opportunity phase, the general needs of the contracting authority must be identified. It is necessary to ensure that these needs correspond to the expectations of all the target users and that they take into account likely changes in needs. The opportunity study leading to the drafting of a named document is therefore the deliverable of the opportunity study which formalizes the project intention.
When the idea of the project is formalized, the manager must formalize the mission of the owner of the project and define the clauses. The mission letter (possibly mission note) is the document which formalizes the mission of the project manager.
The feasibility study
The feasibility study aims to analyze the economic, organizational and technical feasibility of the project.
Needs analysis: from the summary needs analysis, it is necessary to make a rough estimate of the investment and operating cost of the project (in terms of human and material resources), the time periods envisaged and any returns on investment. Based on these estimates, the owner can consider continuing the project and if necessary provide a methodological organization for it. Scenario study: the feasibility study leads to considering several scenarios ("case studies", in English "use cases"). Each scenario envisaged makes it possible to assess the risks weighing on the project and must be accompanied by a provisional assessment presenting the cost and the benefits of the scenario. This stage is the subject of a deliverable, the feasibility file.
The needs analysis carried out in the preliminary draft only concerns the major project processes. It is necessary to make a more in-depth study of the needs so that the contracting authority and the contracting authority can agree on a contractual document, this is the preliminary study, also called "general design". It is essential during the preliminary study to ensure that the needs are expressed only in a functional manner and not in terms of solutions. The functional analysis of needs thus makes it possible to identify the necessary functionalities of the structure.
The functional analysis leads to the development of a document functionally defining the need (independently of any technical solution). This document is called functional specification (generally abbreviated as CdCf) or design dossier. The Specifications allow the project owner to express his needs in a functional way, as well as to clarify the constraints imposed on the project manager. The functional specifications therefore constitute a contractual document between the project manager and the client.
The technical study is the phase of adaptation of the design to the technical architecture chosen, while describing and documenting the operation of each unit of the project.
The technical study deliverable is the Particular Technical Clauses (CCTP) or detailed specifications.
The detailed study may possibly be accompanied by the creation of a model, or prototype, allowing user representatives to check that the solution chosen meets their expectations.
Groupe Duclos has developed solid expertise in carrying out construction projects in the residential, commercial, institutional and medical sectors and wishes to share this with its customers.
With its most modern and sophisticated management and communication tools, Groupe Duclos offers a dynamic approach that is reflected in each of the stages of a project: from determining needs to after-sales service through budget monitoring and compliance with the production schedule.
The project begins with a feasibility study which will bring out various technical and functional information but also an estimate of the duration of realization but also an estimate of the cost of realization of the project. Estimates that may incorporate variances or options that could be chosen later.
The cost estimate will evolve and refine during the project, so in feasibility we will have a rough estimate of the order of magnitude type. This estimate will be reworked at each phase of the project and will become more and more precise.
Estimation is an essential and important part in project management since it will become the benchmark for cost control. If the estimate is too low, the company may lose money during the execution phase. If, on the contrary, the estimate is too high, the company may lose the contract due to too high cost.
There are different estimation methods ranging from the total approximation to the closest to the current one. Many companies have their own standard for estimation developed over the years and projects.
There are mainly 4 estimation techniques used in project management. The choice will be made according to the level of estimation to reach.
- The subjective method;
- The parametric method;
- The comparative method;
- The analytical method.
The subjective method:
This method is based on the experience of the estimator on similar projects. The estimate will often be attached with an explanatory note specifying the assumptions made: geographic factors, policy, labor, materials, major equipment ...
The parametric method:
It is a so-called empirical method. It is applicable when the project begins to be mastered. For example, the cost of building a hangar can be estimated using this method if we know the desired dimensions (Length x Width x height) by applying standard construction rules. The estimate will then be obtained in $ / m3 for volumes (buildings for example) or $ / m2 for surfaces (office or storage areas for example).
The comparative method:
This method is used when a similar project has already been carried out. The estimator will take into account major differences and inflation or other associated costs.
The analytical method:
This method is the most precise but requires a good definition of the scope of the project in order to divide it into section, sub-sections and components.
Each component must then be assigned a cost including labor and material. This cost can come from standards applied in society, coming from a cost database and being updated according to inflation and the situation of the project.
Very often this type of estimation is carried out when the plans and diagram are carried out, this in order to obtain, for example, linear meters for pipes or cubic meters for civil engineering.
No matter what type of estimation method is applied, an additional amount must be added to cover the additional costs, make a profit and provide a reserve which will be based on a risk analysis of the project. The total of all this will give the price.
The building plans are like a road map leading to the construction of your new house. These two-dimensional scale graphic documents are used for several purposes. For example, the contractor must submit a set of these plans to obtain a building permit from the municipality.
Other sets of plans will allow suppliers to determine the quantities of materials required, while specialists in the various construction trades will use the data indicated on these plans to perform the work as required.
A set of building plans includes:
- The facade plans;
- Structural plans;
- Interior floor plans.
The facade plans :
which are detailed plans, to scale of the roof and exterior walls. They represent the front, back and side facades of your house and they also define the location and nature of the planned exterior cladding.
Structural plans :
which are plans that include details and sectional views of the structural elements of your new house. These plans define the location of the footings, basement walls, roof trusses, floor joists and retaining beams.
Interior floor plans :
which contain an overview, to scale, of each floor of the house, including the basement. It includes the dimensions of the rooms, the arrangement and size of the windows, the location and direction of opening of the doors, the layout of the electrical system and the sanitary installation as well as the configuration of the cupboards. the kitchen and bathrooms. Certain specific construction features, such as built-in wall units or fireplace surrounds, can also be defined in additional plans.
The descriptive estimate completes the construction plans by providing additional information. The contractors generally provide a descriptive estimate in which the particularities of construction and finishing appear.
The descriptive estimate can also contain the description of exterior finishes and interior finishes, following your selection of materials, colors, styles, or even model numbers. In some cases, you can make the desired changes to this quote by talking to your contractor. When there is an agreement, confirm it in writing.
If the contractor has provided construction allowances which allow you to make certain choices yourself, for example with regard to lighting devices, floor coverings, sanitary fittings or other appliances, these allowances should detail the nature and monetary value assigned to each of them. Obviously, a cheaper selection than the amount provided in this chapter will save you money, while you will have to plan a higher amount if you choose more expensive materials.
Information on other aspects of the construction, such as the warranty offered by the contractor, or the fire insurance in effect during the work, can also be found in the descriptive quote.
Groupe Duclos’ mission is to support you in the realization of your Residential, Commercial and Institutional projects.